History and Future Directions of Clinical Supervision in Korea
Western models of counseling were first introduced to Korea in the 1950s by American delegates who assisted in the establishment of the Ministry of Education after the Korean War (Ryu & Park, 1998). Counseling psychology programs were established by U. S.-trained Korean scholars in academic institutions in the 1970s. The Korean Counseling Psychological Association (KCPA, 2008), a division of the Korean Psychological Association, was established in 1974. The KCPA has almost tripled in size in the past 10 years and currently has approximately 8,000 members (KCPA, 2013).
In the past two decades, public awareness of and demand for counseling services in Korea have increased. This elevated status of counseling psychology propelled counseling psychologists to institute a certification system in 1985 and to develop the ethical code in 2003 to enhance public accountability of the services they provide. The KCPA offers two types of certificates. The beginning-level certificate requires 50 individual counseling sessions and 10 supervision sessions. The advanced-level certificate requires 400 individual counseling sessions and 50 supervision sessions (KCPA, 2013). Five years after receiving the advanced-level certificate, KCPA members can obtain a supervisor status without further education or training. Further, the KCPA ethics committee developed and published an ethics code in 2013. The code includes six sections: (a) resolving ethical issues, (b) general ethical guidelines including competence and confidentiality, (c) research, (d) education and training, (e) assessment, and (f) therapy. Each of these sections includes implications for supervision.
The importance of clinical supervision and ethical behavior in the training of counseling psychologists is firmly recognized in Korea. This presenter will review the historical development of supervision in Korea and articulate plans for instituting supervisor training. Finally, she will discuss the need for Korean models of clinical supervision and ethical guidelines to incorporate cultural context.
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